War in Europe: The impact of Russian aggression in Ukraine two years on

Two years after Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine, the war continues to cause extreme civilian harm and military casualties and has changed Ukrainian society to the core.

Two years of war in Europe also changed perceptions of NATO and the defence policies of European countries, whilst the EU decided to open accession negotiations with Ukraine. Yet, war in the Middle East and rising tensions in Asia have also directed international attention away from Ukraine. Promised weapon deliveries materialise slower than foreseen, and public support for Ukraine is not as self-evident as it was just after the invasion.


On 23 February 2024, two years after Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine, the Netherlands Defence Academy (NLDA), the Royal Netherlands Association for War Studies (KVBK), the Netherlands Atlantic Association, Clingendael Institute, The Hague Centre for Security Studies (HCSS), and Leiden University took stock of these developments and asked the question: what does the war mean for Ukraine, for Europe and the world at large?


During a one-day symposium, Dutch, Ukrainian and international experts discussed the impact of the war on geopolitics, the consequences of the war on the EU and NATO and what it means for diplomatic coercion. We discussed the impact on Ukrainian people and politics and the societal developments in Ukraine since the start of the war, and analysed the military lessons learned from a return to interstate conflict and consider the effects on innovation and the defence industry.


Read the full report of the event on the website of Leiden University.

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