Artikel Atlantisch Perspectief

The challenge of a shared strategic culture in Europe

French President Emmanuel Macron surprised many in 2017 with his European Intervention Initiative (EI2). The aim of this initiative was not to create a standing ‘European army’ but to develop a shared ‘strategic culture’. In order to establish a ‘European strategic culture’, some degree of convergence of the different strategic cultures is necessary. To examine the difficulty of this task, Dick Zandzee and Kimberley Kruijver compare five key elements fundamental in the different strategic cultures of the European member states who signed EI2.


Dick Zandee en Kimberley Kruijver


European Union, European defense integration, European Intervention Initiative, EI2, Emmanuel Macron, strategic culture, Europese Unie, EU, Europese defensie integratie, European Intervention Initiative (EI2), ESA, AP5, 2019, AP5-2019

Photo: Flickr/NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization/CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

The challenge of a shared strategic culture in Europe

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